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Bibliography of Geophysical Methods for Characterizing Mine Waste


General Geophysical References and Overviews

Al-Fousan, F., Harbert, W., Dilmore, R., Hammack, R., Sams, J., Veloski, G., and Ackman, T., 2004, Methods for Removing Signal Noise from Helicopter Electromagnetic Survey Data: Mine Water and the Environment, v. 23, p. 28-33.

Benson, Richard, Glaccum, R.A., and Noel, M.R., 1984, Geophysical techniques for sensing buried wastes and waste migration: National Ground Water Association, 6375 Riverside Dr., Dublin OH 43107, 236 p. [An older treatment, written for hydrologists. Not specific to mine waste problems.]

Conyers, L.B., and Goodman, Dean, 1997, Ground-penetrating radar: Walnut Creek, California, Altamira Press, 232 p. [A good introduction to GPR methods.]

Corwin, R.F., 1990, The self-potential method for environmental and engineering applications, in Ward, S.H., ed., Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics, v. I: Tulsa, Oklahoma, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, p. 127-146. [Information about, and examples of, SP methods.]

Greenhouse, J., Pheme, P., Coulter, D., and Yarie, Q., 1998, Trends in geophysical site characterization: in Roberston, P.K., and Mayne, P.W., eds., Geotechnical site characterization—Proceedings of the first international conference, Atlanta, Georgia, 19-22 April, 1998, p. 23-34. [Excellent review of recent trends in geophysical site characterization, with many examples. Not specific to mine waste work.]

Hammack, R., 2004, 2-D and 3-D Resistivity for Locating Voids Beneath Highways; Three Case Studies, in proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Interstate Technical Group on Abandoned Underground Mines, Tucson, AZ, April 21-23, 2004.

McNeill, J.D., 1990, Use of electromagnetic methods for groundwater studies, in Ward, S.H., ed., Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics, v. I: Tulsa, Oklahoma, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, p. 191-218. [A good introduction to EM methods.]

Ward, S.H., 1990, Resistivity and induced polarization methods, in Ward, S.H., ed., Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics, v. I: Tulsa, Oklahoma, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, p. 147-190. [A good introduction to DC and IP methods.]


Direct Push and Borehole Methods

Bell, R.S., Powers, M.H., and Larson T., eds., 1998, Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, March 22-26, 1998, Chicago IL: Environmental and Engineering Geophysics Society, 1110 pp. [Contains a section with many papers on direct push technologies, p. 1-100. Not specific to mine waste problems.]

Keys, W.S., 1997, A practical guide to borehole geophysics in environmental investigations, Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 176 p. [Good text on standard geophysical logging of boreholes.]

Robertson, P.K., Lunne, T., and Powell, J.J.M., 1998, Geo-environmental applications of penetration testing, in Robertson, P.K., and Mayne, P.W., eds., Geotechnical site characterization—proceedings of the first international conference, Atlanta, Georgia, 19-22 April, 1998, p. 35-48. [Keynote paper at a symposium emphasizing direct push technology. Excellent overview.]

Robertson, P.K., and Mayne, P.W., eds., 1998, Geotechnical site characterization—Proceedings of the first international conference, Atlanta, Georgia, 19-22 April, 1998, 1496 pp., 2 vols. [Both volumes have many papers on direct push methods. Not specific to mine waste work.]


Overviews on Using Geophysics for Mine Waste Applications

Ackman, T.E., 2003, An introduction to the use of airborne technologies for watershed characterization in mined areas: Mine Water and the Environment, vol. 22, p. 62-68. [An overview of research on use of frequency domain electromagnetics and thermal infrared to map surface and subsurface mine-related features.]

Anderson, J.E., and Satterwhite, M.B., 1995, Remote sensing of acid mine drainage using high resolution, narrow-band digital multispectral video, in Mausel, P., ed., ASPRS 15th Biennial Workshop on Videography and Color Photography in Resource Assessment, Terre Haute, IN, p. 192-209.

Blowes, D.W., 1997, The environmental effects of mine wastes, in Gubins, A.G., ed., Proceedings of Exploration '97, Fourth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration: Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada, Toronto, ON, p. 887-892. [Useful overview of geochemical, mineralogical, and hydrological processes in mine waste piles. Minor geophysics discussion.]

Campbell, D.L, and Fitterman, D.V., 2000, Geoelectrical methods for investigating mine dumps: ICARD2000—Proceedings from the Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage; Littleton CO, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., p. 1513-1523. [An expanded version of the present paper, but without detailed tables or annotations on the bibliographic citations.]

Campbell, D.L., Horton, R.J., Bisdorf, R.J., Fey, D.L., Powers, M.H., and Fitterman, D.V., 1999, Some geophysical methods for tailings/mine waste work: Tailings and Mine Waste '99, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, Fort Collins, Colorado, January 24-27, 1999; Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 35-43. [DC, EM, IP, Mag, and GPR work done on and near mine dumps by U.S. Geological Survey.]

Custis, K., 1994, Application of geophysics to acid mine drainage investigations, volume I — literature review and theoretical background, MS 09-06: California Department of Conservation, Office of Mine Reclamation, 801 K Street, Sacramento CA 95814-3529, 100p. [The standard older treatment of surface geophysical methods that can be applied to AMD problems. Includes literature review through about 1993.]

Custis, K., 1994, Application of geophysics to acid mine drainage investigations, volume II — site investigations, MS 09-06: California Department of Conservation, Office of Mine Reclamation, 801 K Street, Sacramento CA 95814-3529, 100p. [The standard older treatment of surface geophysical methods that can be applied to AMD problems. Includes examples from several Western U.S. mine waste piles.]

Hammack, R., 2008, Using helicopter electromagnetic surveys to Identify potential hazards at mine waste impoundments: GeoCongress 2008: Geosustainability and Geohazard Mitigation, Proceedings of GeoCongress 2008, ed. by Reddy, K.R., Khire, M.V., and Alshawabkeh, A.N., Reston, VA: ASCE / GEO Institute, ISBN 978-0-7844-0971-8, 2008, 1203 pp., Geotechnical Special Publication No. 178, pp. 199-206.

Hammack, R.W., Love, E.I., Veloski, G.A., Ackman, T.E., and Harbert, W., 2003, Using helicopter electromagnetic surveys to identify environmental problems at coal mines: Mine Water and the Environment, vol. 22, p. 80-84.

Hammack, R., Sams, J., Veloski, G., and Ackman, T., 2004, Airborne Surveys Identify Environmental Problems on Mined Lands, Reclamation Matters 2004.

Hammack, R., Veloski, G., Ackman, T., Love, E., Harbert, W., 2003,The use of HEM to delimit the areal extent of contaminated qquifers at surface and underground coal mines, in proceedings of the 2003 Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), San Antonio, TX, April 6-10, 2003.

Hammack, R., Veloski, G., Ackman, T., Sams, J., Dilmore, R., Manges, E., and Janney, D., 2003, An evaluation of remote sensing tools for hydrologic investigations: Proceedings and Summary Report from Workshop on Assessing and Managing Mercury from Historic and Current Mining Activities, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 28-30, 2000, EPA/625/R-04/102, August, 2003.

Hammack, R., Witherly, K., Zellman, M., Lipinski, B., and Harbert, W., 2004, Using helicopter TDEM surveys to identify flooded workings in underground coal mines; the first attempt, in proceedings of the 2004 Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), Colorado Springs, CO, February 22-26, 2004.

King, A., and Pesowski, M.S., 1993, Environmental applications of surface and airborne geophysics in mining: CIM Bulletin, v. 86, no. 966, p. 58-67. [Review of geophysical methods applicable to mining environmental issues, with many examples from Canada.]

Moret, G.J.M., and Rose, A.W., 2007, Resistivity level runs to detect water-filled mine voids between drill holes: Mine Water and the Environment, vol. 26, p. 23—28.

Paterson, N., 1997, Remote mapping of mine wastes, in Gubins, A.G., ed., Proceedings of Exploration '97, Fourth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration: Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada, Toronto, ON, p. 905-916. [A very useful overview of geophysical methods, including spectral remote sensing techniques, that are being used for all types of mine waste work. Several case histories from Canada, evaluation of lessons learned, good bibliography.]

Paterson, N., and Stanton-Gray, R., 1995, Application of remote sensing and geophysics to the detection and monitoring of acid mine drainage: CANMET Proceedings for Sudbury '95 - Mining and the Environment, Sudbury, Canada, May 28 - June 1, 1995, v. III, p. 955-967. [Geophysical methods in use in Canada for AMD studies, with predictions of possible future directions.]

Repic, R.L., Lee, J.K., Mausel, P.W., Escobar, D.E., and Everitt, J., 1991, An analysis of selected water parameters in surface coal mines using multispectral videography: Photographic Engineering and Remote Sensing, vol. 57, p. 1589-1596.

Schueck, J., 2000, Investigating abandoned mine reclamation sites using geophysical techniques, in Proceedings, 22nd Annual National Association of Abandoned Mine Land Programs Conference, Steamboat Springs, Colorado, September 24-27, 2000, p. 395-410. [A nice set of examples of using EM, VLF, and magnetics in abandoned coal mine workings in Pennsylvania. VLF used to locate fissures where surface water was flowing into underground mine workings, to emerge down gradient as AMD. Elsewhere, EM units were used to trace edges of coal mine backfill and AMD from backfill. Magnetics used to find buried tipple refuse, a source of AMD, as well as lost tanks and drums.]

Smith, B.D., McCafferty, A.E., and McDougal, R.R., 2000, Utilization of airborne magnetic, electromagnetic and radiometric data in abandoned mine land investigations, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), May 21-24, 2000, Denver, Colorado, p. 1525-1530. [A case history showing how to integrate various airborne geophysical methods to survey abandoned mine lands in the Boulder, Montana, and Animas, Colorado, watersheds.]


Case histories using geophysics to trace AMD plumes

Alexander, S.S., Dein, J., and Gold, D.P., 1973, The use of ERTS-1 MSS data for mapping strip mines and acid mine drainage in Pennsylvania, in Freden, S.C., and Mercanti, E.P., eds., Symposium of Significant Results Obtained from the ERTS 1, NASA, Washington DC, Vol. 1, section A, p. 569-575.

Benson, A.K., 1998, Integrating hydrogeology, geochemistry, and geophysics to map acid mine drainage, in Schultz and Sidhartan, eds., Proceedings of the 33rd symposium on engineering geology and engineering technology, March 25-27, 1998, Reno, Nevada: Exploration and Mining Geology, v. 4, p. 411-419. [This paper summarizes geochemistry of mine waters over an area with many mines. Includes an example where many DC Wenner soundings scattered throughout an area mapped out a plume.]

Benson, A.K., and Addams, C.L., 1998, Detecting the presence of acid mine drainage using hydrogeological, geochemical, and geophysical data: applications to contrasting conditions at mine sites in Little Cottonwood and American Fork Canyons, Utah: Environmental Geosciences, v. 5, no. 1, p. 17-27. [Repeats the material in the previous reference and includes a second example using areal DC soundings.]

Buselli, G., and Hwang, H.S., 1996, Electrical and electromagnetic surveys of a mine tailings dam at Brukunga, SA: CSIRO Exploration and Mining Report 277F, 55 p. [Successfully used DC.]

Buselli, G., Hwang, H.S., and Lu, K., 1998, Minesite groundwater contamination mapping: Exploration Geophysics, v. 29, p. 296-300. [Used DC to detect a particular plume.]

Buselli, G. and Lu, K., 1999, Applications of some new techniques to detect groundwater contamination at mine tailings dams, in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), March 14-18, 1999, Oakland, California, p. 507-516. [Helicopter TEM data covering a large tailings dam and vicinity was inverted to give maps of conductivity at different depths. The maps clearly show a shallow conductivity high over the tailings area, and another nearby high that probably reflects geology. Both highs disappear below 50 m depth. The maps show no obvious AMD plume, however. The authors also made ground SP and IP surveys in an attempt to locate the plume, but these appear to be inconclusive. They think that drainage may be taking place along a fault in the electrically resistive (103-105 ohm-m) gneissic bedrock and they show thin linear conductivity highs in both section and plan views that appear to follow this fault.]

Campbell, D.L., Horton, R.J., Bisdorf, R.J., Fey, D.L., Powers, M.H., and Fitterman, D.V., 1999, Some geophysical methods for tailings/mine waste work: Tailings and Mine Waste '99, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, Fort Collins, Colorado, January 24-27, 1999; Rotterdam, A.A Balkema, p. 35-43. [Includes an example of EM over a fossil plume.]

Campbell, D.L., Wynn, J.C., Box, S.E., Bookstrom, A.A., and Horton, R.J., 1997, Tests of ground penetrating radar and induced polarization for mapping fluvial mine tailings on the floor of Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho: Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), March 23-26, 1997, Reno, Nevada, p. 81-87. [Used IP and GPR to look for fluvially-redistributed mine tailings on the bed of the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho. IP highs probably reflected concentrations of such tailings, whereas the GPR profile showed the stratigraphic structures in which the tailings collected.]

Coetzee, H., Chevrel, S., and Cottard, F., 2002, Interdisciplinary studies of the impact of gold and uranium mining in the Witwatersrand Goldfield, in Merkel, B.J, Planer-Friedrich, B., and Wolkersdorfer, C., eds., Uranium in the Aquatic Environment, Springer, Berlin, p. 554-560.

DeVos, K.J., Pehme, P., and Greenhouse, J.P., 1997, Ground geophysical surveys for mine wastes, in Gubins, A.G., ed., Proceedings of Exploration '97, Fourth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration: Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada, Toronto, ON, p. 917-926. [Compares DC sounding, VLF, seismic refraction, and TEM methods for tracing an AMD plume below a tailings dam in Canada. The plume was in soil containing many clay lenses, which complicated the interpretations. DC, VLF, and seismic refraction were good at mapping bedrock at 4-25 m depth, but the plume was ambiguous. Of these, VLF was far the fastest and cheapest. TEM did map the plume fairly well, but follow-up drilling was necessary to resolve the issues.]

Ebraheem, A.M., Hamburger, M.W., Bayless, E.R., and Krothke, N.C., 1990, A study of acid mine drainage using earth resistivity measurements: Ground Water, v. 28, p. 361-368. [Successfully used DC.]

Gamey, T.J., 1998, Acid mine drainage in northern Ontario, in Gibson R.I., and Milligan, P.S., eds., Geologic applications of gravity and magnetics: case histories: SEG Geophysical Reference Series, no. 8, and AAPG Studies in Geology, no. 43, Tulsa OK: Society of Exploration Geophysicists, p. 112-113. [Used a helicopter-borne 3-frequency system to map a plume extending over 2000 ft from a tailings pond. The sensor was slung 30 to 45 m above the ground and survey lines were spaced 200 m apart. The plume had conductivity of ~5mS/m in a background of ~1mS/m. The size of the plume made it economical to use airborne, rather than ground, EM methods to trace it.]

Giacinto, J., Reeves, G., Hammack, R., Petzrick, P., Rafalko, L., Welsch, D., Litten, J. and Breighner, E., 2005, Interpretation of helicopter electromagnetic survey data for the Kempton Mine Complex, Maryland, in Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, Sept. 11-15, 2005.

Gudjurgis, P., Katsube, T.J., and Gingerich, J., 1997, Complex resistivity characteristics of pyrite and clays altered by acid-mine-drainage contaminants: implications for monitoring of advancing contamination fronts: Expanded Abstracts With Biographies, Society of Exploration Geophysicists International Exposition and Sixty-Seventh Annual Meeting, November 2-7, 1997, Dallas TX, v. 1, p. 434-437. [A laboratory study to predict IP signatures of AMD plumes. The main IP effects were at higher frequencies than are commonly used by present-day IP gear.]

Hammack, R., and Mabie, J., 2004, Meter Reader-Airborne EM and Magnetic Surveys Find Fault(s) with Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine Superfund Site: The Leading Edge, v. 21, no. 11, p. 1092-1095.

Hammack, R.W., Sams, J.I., Veloski, G.A., and Mabie, J.S., 2003, Geophysical investigation of the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine Superfund site, Lake County, California: Mine Water and the Environment, vol. 22, p. 69-79. [Use of airborne magnetic and electromagnetic conductivity surveys identified the source of mercury entering Clear Lake, CA by tracking the subsurface plume of conductive water from the mine pit to the lake.]

Hammack, R., Veloski, G., Sams, J., and Shogren, J., 2002, The use of airborne EM conductivity to locate contaminant flow paths at the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine Superfund Site, in proceedings of the 2002 Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), Las Vegas, NV, April 10-14, 2002.

Hammack, R., Veloski, G., Sams, J., and Shogren, J., 2002, The use of airborne magnetic and EM conductivity surveys to locate groundwater flow paths at the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine Superfund Site, in proceedings of the 2002 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Lexington KY, June 9-13, 2002.

King, A.R., and Hynes, T., 1994, Applications of geophysical methods for monitoring acid mine drainage, in Proceedings of the International Land reclamation and Mine Drainage Conference and Third International Conference on the Abatement of Acid Drainage: U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Publication SP 06A-94, v. 1, p. 317-326. [Review of geophysical methods for tracing AMD.]

Love, E., Hammack, R., Harbert, W., Sams, J., Veloski, G., and Ackman, T., 2005, Using airborne thermal infrared imagery and helicopter EM conductivity to locate mine pools and discharges in the Kettle Creek Watershed, North-Central Pennsylvania: Geophysics v. 70, no. 6 (Nov-Dec, 2005), p. B73-B81.

Mabie, J., Wilson, T., and Hammack, R., 2003, Geophysical Investigations at the T&T Mine Complex, Preston County, West Virginia, in proceedings of the 2003 Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), San Antonio, TX, April 6-10, 2003.

McDougal, R.M., Smith, B.D., Cannon, M.R., and Fey, D.L., 2000, Integrated geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological study of the Buckeye mine tailings, Boulder watershed, Montana, in Proceedings, 22nd Annual National Association of Abandoned Mine Land Programs Conference, Steamboat Springs, Colorado, September 24-27, 2000, p. 411-428. [EM units were used to trace shallower (EM-31) and deeper (EM-34) parts of a plume migrating from tailings deposit towards a nearby stream.]

Merkel, R.H., 1972, The use of resistivity techniques to delineate acid mine drainage in ground water: Ground Water, v. 10, p. 38-42. [Successfully used DC.]

Paterson, N., 1997, Remote mapping of mine wastes, in Gubins, A.G., ed., Proceedings of Exploration '97, Fourth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration: Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada, Toronto, ON, p. 905-916. [Includes two particularly instructive examples involving repeat geophysical surveys to monitor evolution of plumes. The first, made with an EM-34o system, showed up a new lobe of the plume that had developed between surveys. The second showed the GPR profiles reproduced here in Figure 6. This paper also reports an attempt to trace an AMD plume using SP. The results were strongly affected by near-surface conditions and were inconclusive.]

Phillips, G., and Maathuis, H., 1997, Surface and downhole EM investigations at potash mine sites in Saskatchewan, Canada: Case histories, in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), March 23-26, 1997, Reno, Nevada, p. 97-106. [Authors relate their practical experience using geophysics to trace plumes from potash mines. Their plumes were briney, rather than acidic, but also very electrically conductive. They state they have found EM cheaper than DC for their application, and compare many commercial EM instruments, giving useful discussions of the strengths and weaknesses of each.]

Rucker, D.F., Glaser, D.R., Osborne, T., and Maehl, W.C., 2009, Electrical resistivity characterization of a reclaimed gold mine to delineate acid rock drainage pathways: Mine Water and Environment 28(2):146-157. doi:10.1007/s10230-009-0072-x.

Sams III, J.I. and Veloski, G.A., 2003, Evaluation of airborne thermal infrared imagery for locating mine drainage sites in the Lower Kettle Creek and Cooks Run Basins, Pennsylvania, USA: Mine Water and the Environment, vol. 22, p. 85-93.

Sams III, J.I., Veloski, G.A., and Ackman, T.E., 2003, Evaluation of airborne thermal infrared imagery for locating mine drainage sites in the Lower Youghiogheny River Basin, Pennsylvania, USA: Mine Water and the Environment, vol. 22, p. 94-103.

Schueck, J., 2000, Investigating abandoned mine reclamation sites using geophysical techniques, in Proceedings, 22nd Annual National Association of Abandoned Mine Land Programs Conference, Steamboat Springs, Colorado, September 24-27, 2000, p. 395-410. [VLF used to locate fissures where surface water was flowing into underground mine workings, to emerge down gradient as AMD. Elsewhere, EM units were used to trace AMD from coal mine backfill.]

Sinha, A.K., 1994, Ground electromagnetic surveys for environmental investigations a the Heath Steele mines area, New Brunswick: Current Research 1994-E; Geological Survey of Canada, p. 219-225. [Used EM-31o and EM-34o at two sites. At the first, the AMD plume was in soil, and EM easily found it. At the second, drainage appeared to be via fractures in the bedrock. There EM failed to see the plume.]

Yuval and Oldenberg, D.W., 1996, DC resistivity and IP methods in acid mine drainage problems: Results from the Copper Cliff mine tailings impoundments: Journal of Applied Geophysics, v. 34, p. 187-198. [Authors were trying out IP, but made the necessary concomitant DC profiles. DC showed the AMD plume well, whereas IP was inconclusive.]


Examples Using Geophysics at Mine Waste Piles

Buselli, G., Hwang, H.S., and Lu, K., 1998, Minesite groundwater contamination mapping: Exploration Geophysics, v. 29, p. 296-300. [Compares DC and TEM methods in a study of a tailings pond, now mostly filled, at an abandoned pyrite mine in South Australia. Concludes that DC works best for shallow investigations, TEM for deeper ones (see fig 5). Also reports on SP work done on the property.]

Butts, R.A., and Hague, P.R., 1998, Locating dangerous historic mine workings in the Cresson open-pit mine with the aid of ground penetrating radar, in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), March 22-26, 1998, Chicago, Illinois, p. 511-520. [GPR is being used at a new open pit gold mine near Cripple Creek, Colorado, to systematically survey ahead of its excavation machinery. The GPR work warns of potential hazards from old mine openings.]

Campbell, D.L., Fitterman, D.V., Hein, A.S., and Jones, D.P., 1998, Spectral induced polarization studies of mine dumps near Silverton, Colorado, in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), March 22-26, 1998, Chicago, Illinois, p. 761-769. [This paper contrasts two mine dumps in Colorado, one with a low and even IP response (<12 milliRadian phase shift) and a second with local highs in its IP response (>40 mR phase shifts). IP highs did not particularly correlate with conductivity highs. Analyses of composite geochemical samples from the first dump showed <1 wt% sulfides, and about 6 wt% sulfides in the second (Steve Sutley, written commun., 1998), a result that supported the geophysical interpretation.]

Carlson, N.R., and Zonge, K.L., 1997, Case histories of electrical and electromagnetic geophysics for environmental applications at active mines, in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), March 23-26, 1997, Reno, Nevada, p. 73-80. [A report on using both TEM and CSAMT at several active leach dumps in the southwestern U.S. They give an example from a copper leach dump, where the 10 ohm-m contour on their cross sections closely coincides with pre-dump topography, now buried as much as 150 ft deep. They state that CSAMT works better than TEM for such an application and depths.]

Frangos, W., 1997, Electrical detection of leaks in lined waste disposal ponds: Geophysics, v. 62, no. 6, p. 1737-44. [Permanent electrode arrays were emplaced under a liner to monitor for leaks.]

Freeman, K., Wright, J., and Phillips, N., 1997, Practical geophysical applications for everyday operational and engineering problems at Newmont Gold Company, in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), March 23-26, 1997, Reno, Nevada, p. 53-56. [Gives an example of monitoring for leaks in a tailings pond by combining a mise-a-la-masse source in the pond with permanent electrode arrays under its liner.]

Jansen, J., Haddad, B., Fassbender, W., and Jurcek, P., 1992, Frequency domain electromagnetic induction sounding surveys for landfill site characterization studies: Ground Water Monitoring Review, v. 12, no. 4, p. 103-109. [FDEM data was inverted to get details of dump structure.]

McDougal, R.M., Smith, B.D., Cannon, M.R., and Fey, D.L., 2000, Integrated geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological study of the Buckeye mine tailings, Boulder watershed, Montana, in Proceedings, 22nd Annual National Association of Abandoned Mine Lands Programs Conference, Steamboat Springs, Colorado, September 24-27, 2000, p. 411-428. [EM-31 and EM-34, DC, and magnetics were used to investigate a deposit of mill tailings. The EM units gave shallower (EM-31) and deeper (EM-34) details on tailings units, and on a plume migrating towards a nearby stream. DC gave depth to bedrock, and mag showed ferrous metal junk.]

Monier-Williams, M., Maxwell, M., and Schneider, G., 1997, Preparing for waste: Geophysics in geotechnical and environmental assessments of proposed mine waste facilities, in Gubins, A.G., ed., Proceedings of Exploration '97, Fourth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration: Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada, Toronto, ON, p. 893-904. [Describes integrated GPR, EM, seismic reflection, and borehole geophysical work done by their firm to investigate basements and damsites prior to siting new tailings empoundment areas in Canada. One part of this report tells of SASW (spectral analysis of surface waves) work done to help determine mechanical properties of a tailings pile in Ontario. Geophones, which were wetted and allowed to freeze into place, were used to record seismic waves generated by weight drops and sledgehammer blows. Spectral analyses of these wavetrains were then used to model vertical distributions (soundings) of shear strength under the source points. The models extended to about 20 m depth. Such methods presumably could be used to find depths to water table and base of the tailings, as well as shear strength.]

Painter, M.A., Laverty, B., Stoertz, M.W., and Green, D.H., 2000, Resistivity imaging of a partially reclaimed coal tailings pile, in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), February 20-24, 2000, Arlington, Virginia, p. 679-687. [A dipole-dipole resistivity survey did an excellent job of outlining the bottom of a coal tailings pile in southern Ohio. Coal tailings with AMD had resistivity of <20 ohm-m; unconsolidated clays, silts, and sands fell in the range 20 to 50 ohm-m; and sandstone bedrock was >50 ohm-m.]

Schueck, J., 2000, Investigating abandoned mine reclamation sites using geophysical techniques, in Proceedings, 22nd Annual National Association of Abandoned Mine Land Programs Conference, Steamboat Springs, Colorado, September 24-27, 2000, p. 395-410. [A nice set of examples of using EM, VLF, and magnetics in abandoned coal mine workings in Pennsylvania. VLF used to locate fissures where surface water was flowing into underground mine workings, to emerge down gradient as AMD. Elsewhere, EM units were used to trace edges of coal mine backfill and AMD from backfill. Magnetics used to find buried tipple refuse, a source of AMD, as well as lost tanks and drums.]

Wardlaw, S., and Wagner, R., 1994, Development of waste rock sampling protocol using induced polarization: CANMET-MSL Div., Nat. Resour. Can., Ottawa, LR, 777-071, Final Rep. [An IP survey of a tailings/rock pile near Sudbury, Ontario, successfully identified high sulfide concentrations therein. Authors consequently propose that IP work could be part of protocols to estimate the sulfide contents of such sites.]

Yuval, and Oldenberg, D.W., 1996, DC resistivity and IP methods in acid mine drainage problems: Results from the Copper Cliff mine tailings impoundments: Journal of Applied Geophysics, v. 34, p. 187-198. [IP work at several mine dumps near Sudbury, Canada, found likely sulfide pods, although there were no boreholes or other information to confirm the interpretations. Metallic junk in the mine dumps gave extreme IP signatures that complicated the interpretations. At Sudbury, high IP values generally correlated with high conductivity values.]


Examples Using Geophysics at Landfills, Possibly Relevant to Mine Work

Bauman, P.D., Lockhard, M., Sharma, A., and Kellett, R., 1997, Case studies of 2D resistivity surveying for soils, waste management, geotechnical, and groundwater contaminant investigations, in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), March 23-26, 1997, Reno, Nevada, p. 261-270. [Practical case histories demonstrating use of multiple-electrode DC arrays.]

Draskovits, P., 1994, Application of induced polarization methods in integrated studies of ground water exploration and characterization of subsurface contamination: The John S. Sumner Memorial International Workshop on Induced Polarization (IP) in Mining and The Environment, Dept. Min. Geol., Univ. Arizona, Tucson AZ. [Work on a high-chloride plume in Hungary showed IP response peaked at places where total dissolved solid content in the plume was moderate, but decreased again for higher amounts of TDS.]

Frangos, W., and Andrezal, T., 1994, IP measurements at contaminant and toxic waste sites in Slovakia: The John S. Sumner Memorial International Workshop on Induced Polarization (IP) in Mining and The Environment, Dept. Min. Geol., Univ. Arizona, Tucson AZ. [DC and IP studies of a Czech landfill and its plume. Both outlined the edges and depth of the landfill. DC saw the plume; IP did not.]

Frohlich, R.K., Urish, D.W., Fuller, James, and O'Reilly, Mary, 1994, Use of geoelectrical methods in groundwater pollution surveys in a coastal environment: Journal of Applied Geophysics, v. 32, p. 139-154. [Schlumberger DC soundings, Wenner DC profiling, and borehole geoelectric work were done to map a plume from a landfill on Cape Cod. There was an increase in formation factor (the ratio of the overall electrical resistivity of a geological unit to that of its pore water alone) as the plume moves through an unconsolidated sand. The authors speculate that residues from the landfill were clogging pores and that iron-oxidizing bacteria were precipitating dissolved iron so as to cause the observed increases.]

Lanz, E.B., Maurer, H., and Green, A.G., 1997, Characterization of a composite landfill: A multidisciplinary approach: Expanded Abstracts With Biographies, Society of Exploration Geophysicists International Exposition and Sixty-Seventh Annual Meeting, November 2-7, 1997, Dallas TX, v. 1, p. 776-779. [Seismic tomography to investigate a landfill in Switzerland. Geophones spaced 2 m apart on the surface recorded P-waves from multiple shots. The data, inverted using a tomographic inversion scheme, show the shape of the bottom of the landfill, which is up to 18 m deep. It also shows some internal structure of the landfill. Dump material had a P-wave velocity of about 1400 m/s, and that of the underlying unconsolidated gravel into which the landfill had been emplaced was about 1800 m/s. This seismic tomographic method should work for mine dumps as well as for landfills.]

Lemke, S.R., and Young, C.T., 1998, Leachate plume investigations using mise-a-la-masse resistivity, in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), March 22-26, 1998, Chicago, Illinois, p. 839-847. [Describes mise-a-la-masse investigations to trace contaminant plumes from landfills in Michigan. The method should also work for tracing AMD plumes.]

Park, S., 1998, Fluid migration in the vadose zone from 3-D inversion of resistivity monitoring data: Geophysics, v. 63, no. 1, p. 41-51. [An example of electrical resistivity tomography, ERT, to trace fluid plumes.]

Tezkan, B., Goldman, M., Greinwald, S., Hùrdt, A., Mùller, I., Neubauer, F.M., and Zacher, G., 1996, A joint application of radiomagnetotellurics and transient electromagnetics to the investigation of a waste deposit in Cologne (Germany): Journal of Applied Geophysics, v. 34, p. 199-212. [CSAMT and TEM surveys at an abandoned gravel pit which now serves as a municipal waste dump. The dump is full to overflowing, so that the locations of the original edges of the gravel pit are lost. Reflection seismic, DC geoelectric, and VLF surveys were also used there. All the electrical conductivity methods found the buried pit edges; like most mine dumps, relatively conductive inside and resistive outside.]

White, C.C, and Barker, R.D., 1997, Electrical leak detection system for landfill liners: A case history: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, Summer, 1997, p. 153-159. [A system of electrodes emplaced below a landfill liner was subsequently monitored, giving early warning of the presence and location of leaks.]

Zonge Engineering, 1999, Down in the dumps: landfill characterization with an extremely fast IP method: workshop notes from the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), March 15, 1999, Oakland, California, Programs, v. 29, no. 6, p. A-322. [Demonstrates a multi-electrode DC/IP system that was fast and effective at locating trash pockets under a 17ft-thick soil cap.]